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Chondroitin

SCIENTIFIC NAME(S): Chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfuric acid, chonsurid, structum

COMMON NAME(S):Chondroitin

Chondroitin is a complex carbohydrate found in the connective tissue of all mammals. In the resilient cartilage that pads the joints, Chondroitin acts like a magnet, drawing fluid into the tissues. This fluid plays two important roles: It attracts essential nutrients to the area, and it makes the cartilage spongier and better able to absorb shocks. Chondroitin also protects healthy cartilage from premature decline by preventing the production of certain enzymes that weaken connective tissue and defeating others that stop nutrients from reaching the cartilage.

History

Chondroitin sulfates were first extracted and purified in 1960.Studies suggested that if enough chondroitin sulfate was available to cells manufacturing proteoglycan, stimulation of matrix synthesis could occur, leading to an accelerated healing process.

Botany :-

Chondroitin is a biological polymer that acts as the flexible connecting matrix between the protein filaments, in cartilage. Chondroitin can come from natural sources (eg, shark or bovine cartilage) or can be manufactured in the lab using different methods, Danaparoid sodium, a mixture of heparin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate (21:3:1), is derived from porcine intestinal mucosa

Uses of Chondroitin

Chondroitin has been used to treat arthritis. It has also been studied for use in drug delivery and antithrombotic and extravasation therapy.

Studies indicate that chondroitin sulfate may promote healing of bone. In numerous studies, chondroitin sulfate has shown to relieve many symptoms and to even slow or reverse osteoarthritis. Additionally, chondroitin sulfate may lower blood cholesterol levels and help to prevent heart attacks in people who already have atherosclerosis.

Side Effects of Chondroitin

Chondroitin is safe and relatively free of side effects when used at the recommended daily dosage at least for short periods of time. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated the safety and effectiveness of chondroitin when used for long periods of time. Until the long-term use of chondroitin is deemed safe, it is best to consult a healthcare practitioner before taking chondroitin supplements.

Mild side effects of chondroitin reported in recent studies include diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain. There have been rare reports of swelling and accumulation of fluid in the eyelids and lower limbs, irregular heartbeats, and alopecia (hair loss) after taking the supplement.

Dosage

400 mg twice a day or 800 mg once a day taken orally.

Toxicology
Little information about long-term toxic effects of chondroitin sulfate is available. Because the drug is concentrated in cartilage, the theory is that it produces no toxic or teratogenic effects. Long-term clinical trials with larger populations are needed to fully determine toxicity .

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